What Is Cannabis?

Cannabis is a very complex plant, that contains more than 100 unique chemicals known as phytocannabinoids (or cannabinoids) which are stored in the plant, and act on cannabinoid receptors found throughout the body.

THC - Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

THC is the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis and is responsible for the “high” or euphoria. Studies confirming THC’s medical effectiveness are ongoing, current clinical evidence primarily shows it to be helpful for relief of chronic neuropathic pain, nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, and the muscle spasm and pain of multiple sclerosis. Areas of therapeutic benefit of THC may include: PTSD relief, Anti-depressant, Non-neuropathic pain, Appetite stimulation, Muscle relaxant, Anti-insomnia, Glaucoma

CBD - Cannabidiol

In contrast with THC, CBD is non-intoxicating and non-impairing. Patients using pure CBD won’t get the “high” associated with THC. CBD is a known anti-inflammatory agent, that likely also works as a neuroprotectant and immunomodulator. It also has been shown to be effective in treating pediatric drug resistant epilepsy.  A large amount of anecdotal, clinical and research evidence is emerging showing benefit of CBD in: Inflammatory pain, Anxiety, Seizure disorder, Arthritis, Autoimmune conditions, Psychosis

Cannabis Strains: Indica VS Sativa

Cannabis was marketed and sold as two main species or varieties: “Cannabis Indica” and “Cannabis Sativa”. Each of these are associated with specific effects. In reality, majority of cannabis strains are genetic hybrids, and may exhibit properties associated with both strains. The effects are determined primarily by the interaction of that plant’s cannabinoid and terpene profile (mixture of chemicals), and the metabolism of the individual user.


Indica strains are typically characterized as body focused, sedative, relaxing and recommended for people with sleep and pain issues.


Sativa strains are typically recommended for daytime use because of reported uplifting, energizing and strong cerebral effects.

The Endocannabinoid System

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a network of chemicals and receptors that exist naturally in our bodies. It functions within our body independent of any cannabis use. The ECS, which works similarly to other neurotransmitter systems, helps to control processes in the body including appetite, pain-sensation, mood and memory. When the ECS is not working properly, current evidence suggests the results are physical complications and illness. 


Located primarily in the central and peripheral nervous system


Distributed primarily in the peripheral and immune tissues


A neurotransmitter produced primarily in the central nervous system, which sends specific chemical messages throughout the nervous system.


2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) Antagonist of the CB receptors that plays an important role in both the bodies immunity as well as how it deals with inflammation.


Terpenes are aromatic hydrocarbons found in essential oils produced by many plants and are an important part of the biochemistry of cannabis plants. Unlike the phytocannabinoids, they are not unique to cannabis. Terpenes are responsible for not only the flavours and smells of plants, but also a large amount of the effects for which we use cannabis medicinally.


High concentrations in the rinds of citrus fruits. It is commonly used in perfumes, household cleaners, and medicines, and boasts a very low toxicity in humans.


Found in high concentrations in cannabis, rosemary and pine trees. Pinene is what gives the pine tree its characteristic smell.


While commonly found in cannabis, linalool is well known for giving lavender that very distinct smell. Lavender, and therefore linalool, has been used for thousands of years to treat multiple ailments.


Humulus Lupulus. Humulene often naturally occurs alongside caryophyllene. Pine trees, orange orchards and tobacco fields are just a few examples of humulene emitters into the environment.


Most commonly found in hops, cloves and basil, caryophyllene is the primary terpene that contributes to the spiciness found in these foods as well as in cannabis.


Myrcene derives its name from Myrcia sphaerocarpa, a brazilian shrub that boasts high concentration of this terpene. It also occurs in moderately high concentrations in hops, mangoes.


Terpinolene occurs in higher concentrations in cumin and lilacs, as well as in tea tree and most apple varieties.


Commonly found in ginger and jasmine. It has a distinct woody scent reminiscent of fresh bark. Nerolidol shows promise of improving the transdermal delivery of other terpenes and cannabinoids. 


Found in chamomile. It is a potent anti-inflammatory. It is a source of Panthenol, a form of vitamin B, that helps the skin hold onto moisture making it less likely to dry out. It helps speed up the healing of sunburn and skin rashes.